Designed by:
Emily Reed
Research by:
Sister Paula Diann
Emily Reed
Special Thanks to:
Sister Joanne Kulhmann
Betsy Johnson
Grant Gerlich
Catherine McAuley and the Sisters of Mercy:

Sullivan, Mary C. Catherine McAuley and the Tradition of Mercy. Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 1995.

Sullivan, Mary C. The Path of Mercy the Life of Catherine McAuley. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 2012.

A Tradition of Mercy:

Sullivan, Mary C. Catherine McAuley and the Tradition of Mercy. Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 1995.

Meehan, Therese. “The Irish Connection.” WIN 18, no. 9 (2010): 28-29. Accessed February 1, 2015.

Sullivan, Mary C. “Mother Mary Clare (Georgiana) Moore.” Mercy International Association. January 1, 2010. Accessed February 1, 2015.

Civil War:

Warren, Robert Penn. The Legacy of the Civil War: Meditations on the Centennial. New York: Random House, 1961.

“Civil War Battlefields.” Civil War Trust. January 1, 2014. Accessed February 1, 2015.

“American Experience.” PBS. January 1, 2013. Accessed February 1, 2015.

S. Department of the Treasury “Office of the Comptroller of the Currency: A Short History.” Office of the Comptroller of the Currency. January 1, 2011. Accessed February 1, 2015. history final.pdf.

National Endowment for the Humanities. “Literature of the Civil War.” EDSITEment. Accessed February 1, 2015.

Hagerman, Edward. The American Civil War and the Origins of Modern Warfare: Ideas, Organization, and Field Command. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1988.

Library of Congress “Web Guide 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.” Primary Documents in American History. Accessed February 1, 2015.

Catholicism in the 1860s:

Wesley, Timothy. “Role of Religion.” Pennsylvania Civil War 150. Accessed January 1, 2014.

Welch, Richard. “America’s Civil War: Why the Irish Fought for the Union” Civil War Times, October 1, 2006.

Levine, Peter. “Draft Evasion in the North during the Civil War, 1863-1865.” The Journal of American History 67, no. 4 (1981): 816-34.

Smith, Timothy Lawrence. Revivalism and Social Reform: American Protestantism on the Eve of the Civil War. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980.

Moorhead, James. “Religion in the Civil War: The Northern Perspective.” National Humanities Center. October 1, 2000. Accessed January 1, 2014.

“Spotlight: Catholics in the Civil War.” Catholic History. February 1, 2011. Accessed January 1, 2014.

Anbinder, Tyler. Nativism and Slavery: The Northern Know Nothings and the Politics of the 1850’s. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Morris, Charles R. American Catholic: The Saints and Sinners Who Built America’s Most Powerful Church. New York: Times Books, 1997.

Oates, Mary J. The Catholic Philanthropic Tradition in America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995.

McCaffrey, Lawrence John. The Irish Catholic Diaspora in America. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1997.

Maher, Mary Denis. To Bind up the Wounds: Catholic Sister Nurses in the U.S. Civil War. New York: Greenwood Press, 1989.

Miller, Randall M. Religion and the American Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Carey, Patrick W. Catholics in America: A History. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Publishers, 2004.

Medical Practices of the Day:

Beller, Susan Provost. Medical Practices in the Civil War. Cincinnati, Ohio: Betterway Books, 1992.

“The Truth About Civil War Medicine.” YouTube video, 4:11. Posted by National Museum of Civil War Medicine, November 24, 2010.

Boyd, Jane E., and Robert D. Hicks. “Medicine.” 150 Pennsylvania Civil War. Accessed February 1, 2015.

Dixon, Ina. “Civil War Medicine.” Civil War Trust. October 29, 2013. Accessed February 1, 2015.

Sisters in the East:

Costello, Sister Mary Loretto. Sisters of Mercy of Maryland. Louis: B. Herder Book Co., 1931. (Chapter IV: pp. 44-55)

McHale, Sister M. Jerome. On the Wing: The Story of the Pittsburgh Sisters of Mercy 1843-1968. NY: Seabury Press, 1980. (pp. 111-117)

Sisters of Mercy. Memoirs of the Pittsburgh Sisters of Mercy. NY: Devin-Adair Co., 1918. (Chapter 15: 254-266)

Sweeney, Helen M. The Golden Milestone 1846-1896: Sisters of Mercy of New York. NY: Benziger Brothers, 1896. (Chapter 6: pp. 69-83)

Langley, Harold. “Washington Catholics during the Civil War” (pp. 3-9), Potomac Catholic Heritage, Fall 2006.

Sisters in the Mississippi Valley:

Evans, Mary Ellen. The Spirit Is Mercy: The Sisters of Mercy in the Archdiocese of Cincinnati 1858-1958. Westminster, MD: Newman Press, 1959. ( 84-93, 310 footnote) Chapters 8-13, pp. 35-36; ch 9 pp 74-80, ch 32 p. 296, 312, ch.35 p 330, ch 36 p 347, ch 61 p542

Oakes, Sister Mary Paulinus. The Tapestry of Mercy: The History of the St. Louis Regional Community of the Sisters of Mercy of the Americas. SOM, 2008. (MO2, AR61-63, MS93-94)

Sisters in the South:

McGuire, Mother M. Bernard. The Story of the Sisters of Mercy in Mississippi. NY: P.J. Kennedy & Sons, 1931. (Chapter 2, pp. 12-28)

Oakes, Sister Mary Paulinus, (author/editor), Angels of Mercy: An Eyewitness Account of the Civil War and Yellow Fever, Sister Ignatius Sumner. Baltimore: Cathedral Foundation Press, 1998. Pp. 1-59; Pictures and map after p. 63)

Ramos, Jane and Sisters of Mercy in Arkansas. Arkansas Frontiers of Mercy. Fort Smith: St. Edward Press, 1989. (Chapter 8, pp. 109-122)

Roberts, Barbara.Sisters of Mercy from Vicksburg to Shelby Springs,” Alabama Heritage, Winter 1989, pp. 2-17.

Unpublished papers: Columbus, GA, booklet for 100th anniversary 1962; Kelsey Chandler 2010 paper on Savannah Sisters OLM during Civil War; James A. Buttimer, thesis SOLM 1845-1893; Sr. Anne Francis Campbell, OLM, Chapter 3 of 1968 dissertation.


Sisters of Mercy of the Americas, Mercy Heritage Center, Baltimore Collection.